When you hydrolyze whey protein, you’re breaking the amino acid components of protein into smaller chains. What does this mean for exercise recovery? A study published in The Journal of Nutrition offers some interesting findings.
Researchers had healthy young men in their late 20s consume 0.08 grams of either hydrolyzed whey or intact whey protein per kilogram of body weight. They found that both supplements increased blood concentrations of the BCAA leucine and the delivery of leucine to muscle.
Muscle protein synthesis, which plays a key role in building and maintaining muscle, also increased to a similar degree with both supplements, but phenylalanine utilization for synthesis remained elevated for around 3 hours with hydrolyzed whey compared to about 1 hour with intact whey protein.
It has been estimated that being dehydrated can have a negative impact on exercise performance. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research looks at how fluid loss amounting to 2% of your body weight can impact steady state cycling.
On separate occasions, 9 recreationally active men cycled for 40 minutes at a steady pace. During one session, they were adequately hydrated. The following day they cycled in a dehydrated state. Subjects reported greater rates of perceived exertion and lower feelings of recovery during and after the dehydrated stage. Blood levels of lactate were also greater when dehydrated.
Experienced weight room warriors understand the value of allowing enough time for muscle recovery. How would taking 3 to 5 days off impact your path to greater gains? If your goals include getting stronger, a study published in the Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research suggests short periods of no weight training can be beneficial.
Eight men with resistance training experience took part in a pair of 4-week strength training programs. They took 3.5 or 5.5 days off after the second 4-week session. Compared to tests taken before the first program started, countermovement jump height and isometic bench press peak force were greater after both periods away from the gym. Scientists theorized these improvements might have been the result of decreased neuromuscular fatigue.
If strength and power are important to success in your sport, a study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research might be of interest. The paper compares the effects of 6 weeks of bench press training with or without the use of elastic bands.
Twice a week, 16 youth league rugby players took part in strength and power development training. Some used elastic bands to deliver 20% of the load on the bench press. Velocity and power were measured at 35%, 45%, 65%, 75%, and 85% of one rep max (1RM) before and after the program.
Both groups increased velocity and power. Variable resistance training with bands produced greater increases in bench press 1RM. Increases in velocity and power were greater at heavier loads for the variable training group compared to lighter loads, where there were smaller differences between groups.
Back in 1963, researchers found that substituting while bread with bread containing 140 grams of rolled oats lowered LDL cholesterol. Now a meta-analysis of 58 controlled trials published online in the British Journal of Nutrition attempts to get more specific on the cardiovascular benefits of eating oat fiber.
Analyzing the diets of 4,000 subjects from around the world, researchers estimated that daily supplementation with 3.5 grams of beta-glucan fiber from oat could lower LDL cholesterol by an average of 4.2%. Working some into your diet isn’t likely to tip the scale too much. One cup of cooked oat bran amounts to just 88 calories.
Insulin sensitivity is a condition where insulin can’t effectively regulate blood levels of the glucose the cells in your body use for energy and other functions. Since a couple hours of moderate intensity exercise actually increase blood sugar levels, a University of Michigan study published in the journal PLOS ONE looks into the impact of diet.
Thirty two healthy women were fed meals where either 30% or 60% of the calories came from carbohydrates. After the 3rd meal, subjects in the low carb group showed a 30% reduction in insulin resistance. There was no reduction in the higher carb group, and the amount of carbs they consumed was within the range of Department of Health and Human Services recommendations…
Low levels of testosterone can lead to fatigue as well as decreased muscle and bone mass. Fortunately, your body’s natural production of this hormone can be altered through diet and exercise. A study presented at the Integrative Biology of Exercise 7 meeting in Phoenix, Arizona measured the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise on 16 normal eight and 28 overweight men.
Researchers had subjects walk or jog for between 40 and 60 minutes per session performed 1 to 3 days per week. At the end of the program, overweight subjects had lost weight and significantly increased testosterone levels. Results were best in subjects who exercised vigorously. Normal weight subjects did not see such a dramatic testosterone increase.
Your body’s preferred fuel source for short bursts of intense effort is muscle glycogen. Consuming carbohydrates after exercise can help replace the glycogen used during a weight training workout, and a study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology provides insight into how you can optimize the process.
During the first 4 hours following exercise, glycogen resynthesis can be stimulated with 1 gram of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight. So the carbohydrate consumption target for a 150 pound athlete would be around 68 grams. How you eat carbohydrates throughout the rest of the day should be geared toward meeting the demands of tomorrow’s training or competition.
New research reveals just how much protein you need after a workout to optimize muscle building.
The conundrum surrounding post-workout nutrition isn’t so much about what to eat as much as how much to eat. You and I both know protein needs to be a priority following a workout, but the jury is still out on how much protein is needed to maximize muscle growth and repair.
Fortunately, new research has shed some light on the matter. A study published in Physiology Reports sought to determine the impact of two different post-workout protein portions following exercise. Furthermore, it also sought to determine how varying amounts of protein post-workout influenced individuals with significantly different amounts of lean body mass.
Subjects were split into four groups as follows:
- Low Lean Body Mass (LLBM), 20 grams of whey protein
- Low Lean Body Mass (LLBM), 40 grams of whey protein
- High Lean Body Mass (HLBM), 20 grams of whey protein
- High Lean Body Mass (HLBM), 40 grams of whey protein
Each group received their protein following two total-body workouts.
Researchers observed a 20 percent greater uptick in post-training muscle-protein synthesis in subjects consuming 40 grams of whey protein compared to those consuming 20 grams. What didn’t make much difference was whether the subjects had low or high lean body mass.
As long as they had the higher amount of protein, they tended to experience a greater degree of muscle- protein synthesis.
How To Eat 40 Grams Of Protein Post-Workout
Although this study was small and the first of its kind, the results suggest that striving to consume 40 grams of protein post-workout is the way to go if you want to add muscle, regardless of your size. The authors speculate that this is especially true if you follow a total-body training style.
That’s because more muscle breakdown is occurring throughout the body compared to a single-body-part split. “Speculate” is the operative word, though. Single-body-part splits were not included in this study.
Rather than having to face two monstrous chicken breasts after your workout, consider one of these seven muscle-building meal combinations to meet your post-workout protein quota!
- 3/4 cup plain Greek yogurt + 1 scoop whey protein + 1/2 cup blueberries = 43 g protein
- 6 oz. salmon fillet + 1 cup quinoa + 1 cup broccoli = 45 g protein
- 4-oz. can albacore tuna + 1/2 cup canned navy beans + 2 cups baby spinach + 1 cup cherry tomatoes = 43 g protein
- 1 cup cottage cheese + 4 tbsp hemp seeds + 1 cup chopped pineapple = 42 g protein
- 6 oz. chicken breast + 1 cup brown rice + 2 cups baby kale = 42 g protein
- 6 oz. sirloin steak + 1 medium sweet potato + 2 tbsp pesto = 40 g protein
- 1 cup low-fat milk + 1/2 cup low-fat plain yogurt + 1 scoop whey protein powder + 1 tbsp almond butter + 1 frozen banana = 44 g protein
- Macnaughton, L. S., Wardle, S. L., Witard, O. C., McGlory, C., Hamilton, D. L., Jeromson, S., … & Tipton, K. D. (2016). The response of muscle protein synthesis following whole‐body resistance exercise is greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein. Physiological Reports, 4(15), e12893.
Continue reading How Much Protein Should You Consume Post-Workout?
You can sprint intervals, cycle in intervals, even incorporate resistance into your interval training. For those who want to try something new and different, a study published in the Journal of Sports and Conditioning Research looks at what you can achieve from interval training in an Olympic sized pool.
Scientists assigned 24 former competitive swimmers to swim freestyle intervals at 50 meter or 100 meter distances. The 50 meter swimmers did 12 to 16 bouts with 15 seconds of rest between each. The 100 meter swimmers did 6 to 8 bouts and got 30 seconds in between.
After 8 weeks of training, both interval distances improved 100 meter and 400 meter swimming performance with increased stroke length and greater maximal aerobic speed. There were no significant differences between groups, and 50 meter sprint times remained unchanged.
Back in 1953, researchers discovered that London bus drivers had a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease than conductors working the same bus. It was the difference between sitting all day and moving around. A new study published in The Lancet looks into the level of exercise needed to negate the effects of driving to work and sitting at a desk 8 hours a day.
Scientists analyzed 16 studies involving more than 1 million adult subjects and grouped them by level of daily exercise. They found that 60 to 75 minutes of moderate intensity exercise per day was enough to make up for the risk created by being inactive for more than 8 hours a day.
Got a busy day ahead of you? Fuel up with a healthy breakfast and make sure you get a fair share of protein. A study on obese and normal weight children published in The Journal of Nutrition suggests protein at breakfast can increase both energy expenditure and fat oxidation.
Some subjects were fed a breakfast with a macro-nutrient distribution of 21% protein, 52% carbohydrates and 29% fat while others sat down to a meal of 4% protein, 67% carbohydrates and 29% fat. The average rate of fat oxidation for all subjects was 16% higher with the high-protein breakfast, and overweight children burned more energy in the 4 hours following the high-protein meal.
True Strength Moment: Because approximately 1 out of 3 children between the ages of 2 and 19 are considered obese, this is important research. Subjects also reported a greater feeling of fullness after the high-protein breakfast, even though all subjects consumed about the same amount of food at a buffet later in the day.
When training for muscle gain we push our bodies to places they haven’t been before. The structure of our routine changes – weights increase and the intensity of workouts increases too.
We understand that in order to build muscle and size we must create a stimulus that challenges us, causing our muscle fibres to breakdown, repair and adapt (grow). Training within our comfort zone will only allow us to maintain our existing level of strength and fitness. By placing more demand on our bodies, it becomes paramount that we are eating the correct foods and taking the right supplements to promote the process of recovery.
Continue reading SUPPLEMENTS THAT AID MUSCLE GAIN
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Active adults who train intensely typically choose complete proteins containing all of the Essential Amino Acids to kick-start recovery. A new study from the University of East Anglia found a correlation between regular consumption of 7 amino acids from meat, fish, dairy, beans, lentils, broccoli and spinach, and cardiovascular health.
Examining data on 2,000 normal weight women in the TwinsUKregistry, researchers found evidence that higher consumption of these amino acids might be associated with lower blood pressure and less arterial stiffness.
True Strength Moment: The 7 amino acids singled out in this research were arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine and tyrosine. An interesting mix of Essential, Conditionally Essential and Non-Essential amino acids.
Everybody wants a lean, muscular physique. Like anything worth having, wanting it isn’t enough. You have to commit to a rigorous diet and training program that will tax your strength mentally as well as physically. To help you satisfy both of these demands, ON’s Essential Amino Energy combines a powerful ratio of rapidly absorbed free-form amino acids with natural energizers and N.O. boosting ingredients to help you reach your next level – including muscle-building BCAAs and arginine to help support intense, vascular pumps.* At 10 calories per serving, it’ll make a big impression without denting your diet. Mix up Essential Amino Energy anytime you want to dial up mental focus, physical energy N.O. production, and recovery support.*
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Consuming a lot of white bread, white rice and sugar sweetened soft drinks can go to your waistline, and research from Columbia University Medical Center suggests it can also weigh heavily on your mood. Analyzing data from 70,000 older women who participated in the National Institutes of Health Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study between 1994 and 1998, researchers found that consuming highly processed carbohydrates can elevate the risk of depression.
True Strength Moment: Highly refined carbohydrates elevate blood sugar levels. If the level gets high enough, your body releases hormones to try and reduce blood sugars. This hormonal response can have an impact on mood and fatigue. For a tip on potentially lifespan extending foods, read today’s Performance Blog at ABBperformance.com
Carnitine is synthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Many active adults use it in supplemental form, but its impact on exercise performance isn’t well understood. Research published in the journal Cell Metabolism shows how this popular ingredient works with an enzyme called carnitine acetyltransferase, or CrAT, to increase muscle stamina in mice.
Scientists created a group of mice with CrAT deficiency in skeletal muscle. Compared to normal rodents they tired of exercise earlier. Then both groups were supplemented with carnitine. As expected, there was no change in the CrAT deficient mice. But the normal mice showed an even greater tolerance for exercise.
True Strength Moment: Researchers think that carnitine works with the CrAT enzyme to optimize muscle energy metabolism in mice. How or even if this mechanism works in a similar way for humans is unknown.
عشرون عاما من التميز والتقدم بدعمكم و تواصلكم المستمر زبائننا الأعزاء نحتفل اليوم بعيدنا العشرين على تأسيس الشركة الأولى للأغذية الرياضية وتاليا نبذة عن تأسيس الشركة
عندما بدأت قبل عشرون عاما من اليوم شركة الأولى للأغذية الرياضية بممارسة أعمالها داخل الأردن, وكانت الأولى في الأردن ومعظم دول الشرق الأوسط المتخصصة بالغذاء التكميلي للرياضيين
حيث كانت البداية بإستيراد نوعيات مختلفة من المكملات الغذائية للرياضين والعمل بمجال الجملة والبيع للنوادي الرياضية وفي عام 1998 تم إفتتاح أول فرع لبيع التجزئة في عمان/العبدلي-مجمع الفريد وأصبحت الشركة رسميا الوكيل الحصري لشركة اوبتيمم نيوترشن
(Optimum Nutrition) في معظم دول الشرق الاوسط وشمال افريقيا وانتشرت فروع الشركة في الاردن و لبنان والعراق ومصر وليبيا وتونس خلال السنوات اللاحقة
تقوم فلسفة الشركة الاولى للأغذية الرياضية على مبدأ بسيط ,نحن نبحث باستمرار عن أفضل المنتجات العالمية و التي تحتل تراتيب متقدمة في التصنيفات العالمية, و بعد تجربتها من قبل كادرنا المتخصص نقوم بشراء كميات كبيرة لنحصل على افضل الاسعار وفى اللحظة التى يصبح فيها سعر المنتج متناسبا مع مجموعة الفوائد والمزايا والتوقعات التى يقدمها المنتج للزبائن, نقوم بتقديم عروضنا التي يتم تصميمها وفق إحتياجات الزبائن و التى بدورها تحمل خصومات هائلة لصالح المستهلك
نعمل فى الأولى للأغذية الرياضية حاليا مع أربعة وعشرين شركة عالمية من أصل أكثر من خمسمائة شركة تعمل في هذا المجال , حيث يتم إختيار الشركات بعناية فائقة بعد دراسة وافية عن المنتج و تركيبتة و أراء آلاف المستخدمين له حول العالم من خلال الإنترنت و بتجربته فعليا من قبل طاقمنا و دراسته بقسم الدراسات والأبحاث المختص بهذه العملية الدقيقه
وفي اللحظة التي تفشل فيها أية شركة في تقديم منتجات ذات قيمة مميزة و مواصفات عالية , يتم التخلى عنها فورا وإستبدالها بواحدة من الشركات الناشئة و المميزة
ولان العنصر البشري مهم جدا في تقديم خدمة ما قبل البيع وللتعرف على احتياجات كل عميل بدقة فإن فريق الأولى للأغذية الرياضية يتم ايضا اختيارهم بعناية فائقة ويتم تدريبهم لفترة زمنية طويلة قبل السماح لهم بتقديم خدماتهم للزبائن ويخضعون لمعايير صارمة في التقييم للحفاظ على مستوى رفيع من الاداء
اننا ندين بهذا النجاح الكبير الذي وصلنا اليه الى زبائننا الكرام الذين ابدو ثقتهم الكبيرة بطريقة عملنا ودعمهم لنا منذ البداية كمزود رئيسي لكل احتياجاتهم سواء في الاردن او باقي دول المنطقة
( زبائننا الكرام … شكرا جزيلا لكم )
Gains aren’t made in the gym. That’s where muscle tissue is broken down. Size and strength is built up when your muscles recover from the breakdown of resistance training. So how long does this process take? A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Researchsuggests the duration might vary between exercises.
Sixteen men in their mid-20s with significant weight training experience performed 8 sets of preacher curls with one arm and seated rows with the other using 10 reps max resistance. Peak torque decreased 15.1% for multi-joint exercise and completely recovered 24 hours post-workout. The decrease was 26.8% after single-joint movements and peak torque remained 8.4% lower than pre-workout measurements 24 hours later. Delayed onset muscle soreness was also greater and took longer than 72 hours to recover for the single-joint movement.
True Strength Movement: This research shows the importance of changing up your training day to day. If you don’t give your muscles enough time to fully recover, you might be robbing yourself of some hard earned gains.
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Doing cardio on an empty stomach, usually first thing in the morning, is supposed to help you burn more body fat than eating before your run, ride or swim. But is this scientific fact or just another popular gym myth?
A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition compared the effects on 20 young female subjects who adhered to a hypocaloric diet for a month. Half of these subjects put in an hour of steady state cardio exercise 3 days a week without eating since the previous evening. The other half eat breakfast before training. All adhered to a diet designed to burn more calories than consumed. At the end of the program, both groups lost weight and reduced fat mass.
Conclusion: There were no significant differences between groups. As long as you’re cutting calories, having a small, balanced meal before training might outweigh the benefits of not eating first.
Endurance runners aren’t a common sight in the weight room, and they typically don’t spend a lot of time working on sprinting speed, but a study published in the Journal of Applied Physiologysuggests a workout combining both elements might help improve race performance along with running economy.
Half a group of 21 male runners continued on with their normal endurance training while the rest took part in an 8-week intervention that added 30-second sprints and heavy resistance training to their workouts. Twice a week they lifted weights at 80% to 90% of their one rep max (1RM) and twice a week they sprinted in blocks of 30 seconds while reducing the time they spent on traditional endurance work by 42%.
After 4 weeks, the sprinting and weight training group cut around one and a half minutes off their 10K race time. There were no additional improvements in 10K performance after 8 weeks, but they did see quicker times in 1500 meter events. Compared to subjects who never changed their training, the experimental group finished about 15 seconds faster.
True Strength Moment: Whether it’s more than a minute shaved off a 44-minute event or cutting 15 seconds off a 5-minute race, taking your training to a place where others don’t can make all the difference.
Everybody keeps track of their fitness journey in one way or another. If your benchmark is setting a new personal best, and you’ve reached a sticking point on squat performance, a study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research offers a variable resistance warm up that might help you grind out a higher one rep max (1RM).
After determining squat 1RM for 16 recreationally active men in their mid-20s, on separate occasions these subjects returned to perform 2 sets of 3 reps using 85% of their 1RM with free weights or banded free weights where band tension generated 35% of the load. 1RM squat was then tested 5 minutes after this short workout. Variable resistance significantly increased 1RM on the final lift.
True Strength Moment: Band resistance potentiated maximal lift performance without changing knee angle or muscle activity. It only slowed the velocity of concentric and eccentric contractions. Give this technique a try to see if it can help boost your best effort on leg day.
Essential fatty acids help facilitate muscle growth in a number of ways. One such way is through the formation of eicosanoids –molecules which exert control over bodily systems such as immunity and inflammation, and act as molecular messenger in the CNS (central nervous system). Eicosanoids can also be classified into prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes. Prostaglandins are of the most importance to muscle growth. They:
- Increase sensitivity to insulin
- Help maintain normal levels of testosterone – the primary, male androgen hormone
- Increase the body’s secretion of growth hormone
- Increase the synthesis of protein in muscle cells
These functions are critical to achieving muscle growth during intensive training. In addition, EFAs powerfully affect the formation of fat tissue and fat metabolism. All the Omega-3s increase the breakdown of body fat; they also encourage the body to burn stored fat as fuel.
Beyond the immediately apparent effects on muscle growth and body composition, essential fatty acids help reduce inflammation, heal injuries, speed recovery and strengthen the immune system (important when engaging in repetitive movement with heavy weights and physical exertion that can weaken immunity); and improve sleep, concentration, stamina, increase blood-oxygen levels and improve cardiovascular function (all of which lead to more effective and intense workouts).
Research shows that to maximize muscle growth, decrease body fat and improve general health, men may consume between 3 and 3.5 grams of EFAs from all sources (food and supplements) daily; women may consume between 2.5 and 3 grams from all sources daily.
Essential fatty acids are found in foods and supplements. The downside of food sources is that many (fish and fully pastured – grass fed – cattle being exceptions) are higher in Omega-6 than Omega-3.
Supplementing with Optimum Nutrition’s Flaxseed Oil or Fish Oil remains the easiest way to get your daily recommended value of EFA’s.
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There are more than a few grams per pound and grams per kilogram protein recommendations out there for you to calculate. But an easier to hit target was presented in an education session at SupplySide West.
According to the research, the average daily protein recommendation of 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight works out to around 50 grams a day for normal size adults. Because this represents the minimum amount of protein needed, it was recommended that less active adults get at least 90 grams of protein per day and very active adults aim for a total of 120 grams of protein per day.
True Strength Moment: Since we’re all a little different physiologically speaking, this generalized protein benchmark won’t likely produce the same results for everyone. It might be a good starting point for figuring out the best daily amount of protein for your needs. Try it out for a month or two, and adjust as needed to support 2014 goals.
You’ve probably heard that averaging less than 6.5 hours of sleep a night or getting more than 8.5 hours of sack time is associated with a higher percentage of body fat. A new study published in theAmerican Journal of Health Promotion confirms these findings while suggesting that going to sleep and waking up at a consistent time of day is a habit related to lower body fat.
Researchers studied the sleep habits of 300 female college students over several weeks. They found that subjects with more than 90 minutes of daily variation in their sleep and wake times tended to have more body fat than subjects who adhered to a schedule that varied less than 60 minutes day to day.
True Strength Moment: Training yourself to go to bed and wake up pretty near the same time each day is simple enough, and to increase the quality of your sleep keep the temperature of your bedroom low while making the environment as quiet and dark as possible. Regular exercise also contributes to sleep quality.
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High Intensity Interval Training is popular with active adults who appreciate an intense workout even when they’re short on time. The results can equal what you’d get out of a less intense workout lasting twice as long. A study published in the journal Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise examines what added intensity brings to your game.
Researchers had inactive female subjects in their mid-20s engage in high or moderate intensity interval training on a stationary bike. The high intensity workout was performed at 80% to 90% of capacity while moderate cycling was restricted to 60% to 80% of maximum effort. All subjects completed six and ten 60-second sets separated by active low intensity recovery. They trained three times weekly for a total of 12 weeks. Fat oxidation was more dramatically increased with HIIT, but neither group realized significant improvements in body weight, fat reduction or waist circumference.
True Strength Moment: The study brief didn’t mention anything about diet, so it’s hard to know what these subjects were eating during the 12-week program. Fat oxidation was increased for both groups, so that’s a positive development. Unfortunately, it only makes a difference if training efforts are complemented by sensible eating.
If you’re thinking a couple minutes of treadmill running can make up for a candy bar moment of weakness, some calculations from Harvard Health Publications HEALTHbeat might change your mind. That few minutes of enjoyment a typical candy bar brings will require about 45 minutes on the treadmill to erase.
The magic number is 3,500. This represents the number of calories in one pound of body fat. Walking or jogging burns about 100 calories per mile, so you’d have to put in 35 miles to lose one pound of body fat. That’s about 9 miles more than a marathon.
True Strength Moment: If this sounds discouraging, consider the power of calorie reduction. By cutting 250 calories out of your daily intake, you could lose a pound of body fat in a little more than a week just by walking for 30 minutes a day. Weight training helps increase your resting metabolic rate, so you burn more calories even when you aren’t exercising. Now you’ve got the needle moving in the right direction.
Many active people are focused on the amount of proteins, carbs and fat they consume each day. But you were told to eat your fruits and vegetables for the micronutrient support. Vitamins and minerals have important roles in numerous metabolic functions, and a study from Arizona State University suggests one micronutrient in particular can weigh in on weight loss efforts.
A group of 20 obese men and women were put on a calorie-restricted diet providing 40 mg of vitamin C daily, which is 67% of the recommended daily allowance. Half of these subjects were given a 500 mg vitamin C capsule each day while the rest got a placebo. All subjects lost an average of 9 pounds during the intervention, but those with higher levels of vitamin C tended to oxidize fat at a higher rate.
True Strength Moment: High levels of vitamin C didn’t accelerate fat burning, but low levels did appear to interfere with fat oxidation. Don’t let a lack of micronutrient support hold back your diet plans. If you aren’t getting a variety of fruits and vegetables in your diet, a high-potency multivitamin might provide you with nutritional insurance.